Glossary

     

The right word, defined.

 

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

 

 

A

A1C Blood Test (see Hemoglobin A1C Test)
Advisory alarm
Notification by the PDM that a serious condition exists.
Aseptic technique
A method for maintaining sterilization and preventing contamination.

 

B

Basal program
One or more basal rates that together cover a 24-hour period from midnight to midnight.
Basal rate
A small base or background amount of insulin that is delivered, at a preset rate, continuously for a specified period of time. Basal rates are measured in units per hour (U/hr).
Basal segment (time segment)
The time period during which a specific basal rate is delivered.
BG goal
A range of blood glucose levels that you are trying to achieve during a certain period of the day. For example, you may want one BG goal before meals, a different BG goal two hours after meals, and yet another BG goal for bedtime.
Blood glucose (see glucose)
Blood glucose level
The amount of glucose, or sugar, in the blood.
Blood glucose meter
A device used to check blood glucose content.
Bolus dose
A dose of insulin taken to correct an elevated blood glucose level or to cover carbohydrates in a meal or snack.
Bolus preset
A bolus dose of insulin, in units, that can be assigned a custom name and preprogrammed into the PDM.

 

C

Calorie
A unit of measurement used to express the energy value of food. Calories come from carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol.
Cannula
A small, thin tube inserted below the skin, which serves to introduce a liquid medication into the body.
Carbohydrate (carb)
One of the three main nutrients found in food. (The other two are protein and fat.) Foods that contain carbohydrates include starches, sugars, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products.
Carbohydrate counting
A method of meal planning based on counting the number of grams of carbohydrate in a given food.
Carb preset
A favorite food item, snack, or entire meal that can be assigned a custom name and preprogrammed into the PDM. You set the carbohydrate value (and, optionally, the fat, protein, fiber, and total calories) for each carb preset.
Complications (of diabetes)
Harmful effects of diabetes such as damage to the eyes, kidney, heart, blood vessels, nervous system, teeth and gums, feet, and skin.
Correction bolus
An amount of insulin taken to compensate for high or low blood glucose levels. The PDM calculates the correction bolus by taking the difference between your current blood glucose level and your target blood glucose value, then dividing the result by your correction factor.
Correction factor (also known as sensitivity factor)
A value that indicates how much one unit of insulin will lower your blood glucose. For example, if your correction factor is 50, one unit of insulin will lower your blood glucose by 50mg/dL.
Correction threshold
The blood glucose level above which you would like to take insulin to reduce an elevated blood glucose.
CSII (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion)
Delivering insulin continuously under the skin (subcutaneously) on a programmed schedule.

 

D

Dawn phenomenon
An early morning rise in blood glucose level caused by the normal release of hormones that block insulin’s effect.
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)
A study by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), conducted from 1983 to 1993 in people with type 1 diabetes, which showed that good blood glucose control significantly helped prevent or delay diabetes complications.
Diabetes, diabetes mellitus
A condition characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) resulting from the body’s inability to use blood glucose for energy. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas no longer makes insulin and therefore blood glucose cannot enter the cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body is unable to use insulin correctly.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (see Ketoacidosis)
Duration of insulin action
The length of time that certain types of insulin remain active and available in your body after a correction bolus. This duration can vary greatly depending on the type of insulin you take. Only use rapid-acting insulin with the OmniPod System.

 

E

Extended bolus
A feature of the PDM that allows a meal bolus dose to be given over an extended period of time.

 

F

Fat
One of the three main energy sources in food (the other two are carbohydrate and protein). Fat is a concentrated source of energy, providing 9 calories per gram. Foods high in fat include oils, margarine, salad dressings, red meat, and whole-milk dairy foods.
Fiber
The indigestible part of plant foods. Foods that are high in fiber include broccoli, beans, raspberries, squash, whole grain bread, and bran cereal. Fiber is a type of carbohydrate, but does not raise blood glucose levels as other carbohydrates do.

 

G

Glucose
A simple sugar (also known as dextrose) used by the body for energy. Without insulin, the body cannot use glucose for energy.

 

H

Hazard alarm
Notification by the PDM that a dangerous condition exists.
Healthcare provider
A professional who practices medicine or teaches people how to manage their health. All healthcare providers are a resource for valuable diabetes management information.
Hemoglobin A1C Test (HbA1C blood test)
A test that measures a person’s average blood glucose level over the past 2 to 3 months. Also called glycosylated hemoglobin, the A1C blood test shows the amount of glucose that sticks to the red blood cell, which is proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood.
Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose)
A higher-than-normal level of glucose in the blood; generally 180mg/dL or higher.
Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose)
A lower-than-normal level of glucose in the blood; generally 70mg/dL or lower.
Hypoglycemia unawareness
A condition in which a person does not feel or recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia.

 

I

Infusing
Introducing a liquid substance under the skin into the body.
Infusion site
Place on the body where an infusion set or Pod is placed and cannula is inserted.
Insulin
A hormone that helps the body use glucose for energy. The beta cells of a healthy pancreas make insulin.
Insulin on board (active insulin)
The amount of insulin that is still active in the body from a previous correction bolus dose. The amount of time insulin remains “on board” or active depends on each individual’s duration of insulin action. Talk with your healthcare provider to determine your duration of insulin action. The OmniPod System continually calculates the IOB to help prevent stacking of correction bolus doses, which is a major cause of hypoglycemia.
Insulin reaction (see hypoglycemia)
Insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio
Number of grams of carbohydrate covered by one unit of insulin. For example, if your insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio is 1:15, then you need to deliver one unit of insulin to cover every fifteen grams of carbohydrates you eat.
In vitro
Literally, “in glass.” Refers to a biological function taking place in a laboratory dish rather than in a living organism.

 

K

Ketoacidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA)
A very serious condition in which extremely high blood glucose levels and a severe lack of insulin cause the body to break down fat for energy. The breakdown of fat releases ketones into the blood and urine. DKA can take hours or days to develop, with symptoms that include stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, fruity breath odor, and rapid breathing.

Ketones
Acidic by-products that result from the breakdown of fat for energy. The presence of ketones indicates that the body is using stored fat and muscle (instead of glucose) for energy.

 

M

Meal bolus (also known as carbohydrate bolus)
An amount of insulin administered before a meal or snack to ensure that blood glucose levels stay within the desired BG goal after a meal. The PDM calculates a meal bolus by dividing the grams of carbohydrates you are about to eat by your insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio.
Multiple daily injections (MDIs)
Introducing insulin into the body with a syringe several times a day.

 

O

Occlusion
A blockage or interruption in insulin delivery.

 

P

Prime bolus
An amount of insulin used to fill the cannula, preparing it to begin delivering insulin under your skin.
Protein
One of the three main energy sources in food (the other two are carbohydrate and fat). Protein is necessary for the growth, maintenance, and repair of body cells and tissues. Protein contains 4 calories per gram. Foods high in protein include meat, poultry, fish, legumes, and dairy products.

 

R

Reverse correction (negative correction)
Using an individual’s correction factor (sensitivity factor), the reverse correction is a calculation that reduces a portion of a meal bolus dose when the patient’s blood glucose level is below their blood glucose target. This feature is an option of the PDM, which should be turned on or off according to the advice of a healthcare provider.

 

S

Sensitivity factor (see correction factor)
Sharps
Any medical item that may cause punctures or cuts to those handling them. Sharps include needles, syringes, scalpel blades, disposable razors, and broken medical glassware. Dispose of used sharps according to local waste disposal regulations.
Sharps container
A puncture-proof container used for storage and disposal of used sharps.
Soft key
A button on the PDM whose label or function appears on the screen directly above the button. The label changes depending on the task you are performing.
Subcutaneous
Under the skin.
Suggested bolus calculator
A feature that calculates bolus doses with user-specific settings and inputs. The settings used to calculate a suggested bolus are target BG, insulin-to-carbohydrate (IC) ratio, correction factor (CF), and duration of insulin action. The inputs used to calculate a suggested bolus are current BG, carbs entered, and insulin on board from previous correction boluses. The bolus calculator can be turned ON or OFF in the PDM.

 

T

Target blood glucose level
The ideal number at which you would like your blood glucose level to be. The PDM uses this number in calculating bolus doses.
Temp basal
A basal rate that is used to cover predictable, short-term changes in basal insulin need. Temporary rates are often used during exercise and for sick-day insulin adjustments.
Temporary basal preset
An adjustment in a basal rate, in either % or U/hr, that can be assigned a custom name and preprogrammed into the PDM.

Time segment (see basal segment)

 

 

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